Christopher W. Alexander, architect [1935- ]
Christopher Alexander  was born in Vienna, Austria in 1936. He was raised in England, and he holds a Bachelor's degree in Architecture and Master's Degree in Mathematics from Cambridge University, and a PhD in Architecture from Harvard University. In 1958 he moved to the United States, and he has lived in Berkeley, California since 1963. Alexander taught architecture at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is now an Emeritus Professor of Architecture. In 1967 he founded the Center for Environmental Structure, and he remains its President.
He is the father of the Pattern Language movement in architecture as well as the pattern movement in computer science, and he is principal author of the 1977 book A Pattern Language, a seminal work that was perhaps the first complete book written in hypertext. In 2000, he founded the website PatternLanguage.com, and he now serves as its Chairman of the Board.
Alexander has designed and built more than two hundred buildings on five continents, laying the groundwork for a new form of architecture, one that looks far into the future yet has roots in ancient traditions. Much of his work has heavily utilized technological innovations designed to build a living architecture, especially for the use of concrete, shell design, and contracting procedures. He has served as a consultant to city, county, and national governments on every continent, and has advised corporations, government agencies, and architects and planners throughout the world.
He was elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1996, is a fellow of the Swedish Royal Society, and has received innumerable architectural prizes and honors, including the first gold medal for research from the American Institute of Architects, awarded in 1970.
His biography, Christopher Alexander: The Evolution of a New Paradigm in Architecture, by Stephen Grabow, was published in London and Boston in 1983, and his film biography, Places for the Soul: The Architecture of Christopher Alexander, was released in 1990.
Concepts of Wholeness 
Christopher Alexander defines the concepts of wholeness and centers in his book The Nature of Order, and emphasizes the idea that a whole makes its parts, rather than the idea that a whole consists of parts. To clarify the difference, he calls the parts made by a whole as "centers." He says that there are some or many centers within a whole, and they intensify each other. In his book, he proposes fifteen fundamental properties to show how centers intensify each other.
Centers—15 Properties of Wholeness
The www has expansive coverage of Alexander's "principles" as applied to various contexts, especially to seemingly diverse topics incuding architecture and computer programming.
Christopher Alexander's minimum features for a living process .