Colerain Township was incorporated in 1738 from part of Drumore Township.
Colerain Township  is a large community with diverse neighborhoods ranging from rural hillsides to high intensity commercial corridors. With this diversity, the Planning Commission looks at the Township not only as a whole but at a slightly narrower scale of character areas where neighborhoods and developed areas share similar characteristics and issues. These areas are noted as:
Rural North / Dunlap — one of the more diverse character areas in Colerain Township. Encompassing most of the northwestern portion of the community, this area includes rural hillsides and properties, suburban residential subdivisions, the Proctor and Gamble complex, the Southern Ohio Dog and Game Protective Association, ballfields, Heritage Park and other distinct uses. Some development has occurred in this area, yet the hillsides, floodplains and the lack of centralized sewer have minimized development pressures.
Banklick Creek — currently the Township's largest planned area for new mixed-use employment development. This, along with the fact that this is also the area of the Township with the largest block of industrial zoned land opens up a great potential for economic development in northern Hamilton County. This character area is also the location of the Rumpke landfill and lower density residential housing situated on the frontage of major roads rather than in typical subdivisions.
Bevis / Pleasant Run — a mixture of old and new with a range in the age of housing, older commercial uses along Hamilton Avenue and a new industrial area along Civic Center Drive. There also is a high concentration of public uses with three elementary schools and Northwest High School, the new Township fire station at Kemper and Pippin Roads, and Triple Creek Park.
Pebble Creek / Dry Ridge — one of the newer areas of the Township with the relatively new Lowe's development and the large, mixed-use development known as the Yacht Club. Two of the largest uses in the area are the Pebble Creek Golf Course/Country Club and the Clarence Newberry Wildlife Sanctuary, which together occupy the southern half of the character area. Other well-known uses in this area include the Donauschwaben Club, St. John's Catholic Church and School.
Colerain Avenue — the major commercial corridor for the Township with significant commercial nodes located at Colerain Avenue and the intersections of Interstate 275, Springdale Road, and Cross County Highway. In between these major intersections is a mix of smaller office and commercial uses. In addition to the commercial areas, this character area includes some of the residential developments influenced by the Colerain Avenue corridor. While some of this residential housing stock consists of older single-family homes behind the commercial uses, this area is also the location of a large percentage of the Township's multi-family housing developments.
Northbrook / Groesbeck — the highest concentration of the oldest neighborhoods in Colerain Township. Over the years, commercial and industrial areas have popped up along Pippin Road and many of these areas are showing their age with a lack of investment and deteriorating appearances. While most of the housing is very old, the housing stock is generally considered to be in solid shape and affordable to many households. Additionally, because of the high level of roadway connectively, residents feel that there are few problems with traffic congestion.
Miami River South — along with the Rural North/Dunlap Area, makes up the other, largely rural part of the Township. This area is rural in large part because of the prevalence of steep slopes and floodplains that have thus far posed constraints to development. This area is also the location of several industrial uses, a gravel pit and a composting center, which will soon close after the operation moves to Struble Road, that are all located along East Miami River Road.
Harrison Avenue — a major gateway into the community but it currently does not provide a very attractive view of the community with a hodge podge of land uses and significant problems with traffic congestion. Within this area is a mix of old commercial and industrial sites, many with poor outdoor storage, along with large recreational uses such as the Westside Soccer Complex and the Miamitown Sports Complex.
Daleview / Peach Grove — an area with decent access to the transportation network and some access to sewer has led this to be one of the hottest areas for new development in recent years. At the same time, this is an area with older, established homes and areas without sewer, which lends itself to differing styles of development.
Springdale / Blue Rock — another gateway into the community as it is the entry point from Cross County Highway. However, it was the constriction of this highway that split this area into two sections with a primarily residential area to the south and a mixed-use area to the north. The mixed-use area is a combination of industry, small businesses, apartments and single family residential uses.
White Oak — one of the oldest neighborhoods in Colerain Township and it is also seen as one of viable neighborhoods as it seems to have withstood the tests of time. The housing stock, though old, has been well maintained and provides a range of housing options. There has been some recent investment in the area, especially in office uses along Cheviot and Blue Rock Roads and there are some infill developments that have been beneficial to the area.
Nearby Towns: Bart Twp • Drumore Twp • Quarryville Boro •